By Gianluca Carnabuci
Why do sure domain names of human wisdom increase quicker than others? This thesis units out to reply to this query through elaborating upon the thought that new principles spring from hybridizations of present rules. through the years, such hybridizations shape a path-dependent community constitution of interconnected and interconnecting wisdom domain names. This thesis develops a network-analytic method of version this constitution and to enquire its results. according to all technological wisdom patented within the usa among 1975 and 1999, this thesis demonstrates that the community place a data area is embedded in at a given time limit impacts its next development clients in very important and predictable methods.
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Using data from a survey of patent holders, Harhoff cum suis (1999) found that the number of citations received by a patent correlates positively and significantly with the value perceived by its holder, a single citation implying an estimated average value of about $1 million. Giummo (2003) examined the royalties received by patent holders at nine major German corporations and reached a similar conclusion. Hall, Jaffe and Trajtenberg (2004) analyzed the patenting activity of almost 5000 firms over a period of 30 years.
PATENT CITATIONS Patent citations contain two kinds of information necessary to instantiate my network model of knowledge growth. While the citations a patent makes indicate the hybridization it springs from, the citations a patent receives indicate its contribution to subsequent knowledge development. In this section, I describe some key patterns of patent citation in the NBER dataset. II. I. 6 shows the mean number of citations made and received over time. The number of citations made rose from an average of about 5 citations per patent in 1975, to about 9 at the end of the observation period.
1993). e. trajectories of knowledge accumulation, from patent citations. These studies provided indirect evidence that patent citations indicate knowledge hybridization. Jaffe cum suis (1998) investigated this issue more directly. They interviewed patent attorneys, R&D directors, and inventors involved in a 5 It is important to notice that the terms spillover and hybridization are two connotations of the same concept: an idea that spills over in the knowledge production process is one that becomes hybridized as an input into a newer idea.