Abductive Inference: Computation, Philosophy, Technology by John R. Josephson, Susan G. Josephson

By John R. Josephson, Susan G. Josephson

In casual phrases, abductive reasoning includes inferring the simplest or such a lot believable rationalization from a given set of evidence or info. This quantity offers new rules approximately inferential and information-processing foundations for wisdom and sure bet. The authors argue that wisdom arises from adventure via approaches of abductive inference, unlike the view that it arises noninferentially, or that deduction and inductive generalization are sufficient to account for wisdom. The ebook tells the tale of six generations of more and more refined typical abduction machines and the invention of reasoning innovations that make it computationally possible to shape well-justified composite explanatory hypotheses, regardless of the specter of combinatorial explosion. This booklet might be of serious curiosity to researchers in AI, cognitive technological know-how, and philosophy of technology.

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AI as art explores the imitative possibilities of machines and the depths of the analogy between humans and machines. By doing this, AI as art acts as a focus for attacks against the very project of making artifactual intelligences. There are two ways to practice AI as science: One can practice traditional-science AI by making models on a computer of the causal mechanisms that underlie human intelligent behavior, or one can practice designscience AI by making computational theories and information-processing systems that can be studied as instances of cognitive agents, thus pursuing the study of cognition and intelligence in the abstract.

Ab- 28 ABDUCTIVE INFERENCE duction absorbs inductive generalization as a subclass and leaves the predictive aspect of induction as a separate kind of inference. Statistical syllogism is a kind of prediction. 2. From wonder to understanding Learning is the acquisition of knowledge. One main form of learning starts with wonder and ends in understanding. 2. Taxonomy of basic inference types. \ inductive projection Conceptual analysis of abduction 29 an explanation of it. " That is, one main form of knowledge consists of answers to explanation-seeking why questions.

That is, if AI is like traditional science, we expect to find theories about the nature of some phenomena being tested and confirmed; whereas, when programs are treated as engineering, the emphasis is on the accomplishment of practical tasks. The engineering approach is important for the discipline as a whole, because it spreads AI through the culture. It applies AI technology to problems in medicine, commerce, and industry; as a result, it creates more uses for AI technology and stimulates the development of AI.

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