By Enrico G. Beltrametti, Jean-Marc Lévy-Leblond
Creation; E. Beltrametti, J.M. LévyLeblond.GeneralReviews: Experiments with unmarried Atoms in Cavities and Traps; H.Walther. Experiments with unmarried Atoms, Molecules, or Photons; S.Haroche. Quantum results with Ultracold Atoms; Y. Castin, et al. move of unmarried Electrons and unmarried Cooper Pairs in metal Nanostructures; M.H. Devoret, et al. Interferometry with debris of Nonzero leisure Mass: Topological Experiments; G.L. Opat. Achievements in Neutron Interferometry; H. Rauch. Electron Interferometry and Holography; A. Tonomura. Quantum Phenomena and Their purposes in Semiconductor Microstructures; F. Capasso.Specific Topics: Quantum Fluctuations and Superconductivity; R. Fazio, A. Tagliacozzo. Spontaneous Localization and Superconductivity; A. Rimini. Photon-Photon Correlations from unmarried Atoms; M.O. Scully. Einstein Causality in Interatom Microcavity-confined Transverse Quantum Correlations; F. De Martini, M. Giangrasso. 3 reviews at the Aharonov-Bohm influence; M. Berry. protecting Measurements; Y. Aharonov,L. Vaidman. susceptible Measurements; L. Vaidman. eight extra articles. Index.
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Extra info for Advances in Quantum Phenomena
Immediately after the detection of a photon, the ion must indeed be projected into the transition lower state, from which it cannot promptly emit another photon. A recovery time must ellapse to let the ion be excited again to 35 the upper state by the laser beam before another photon can be detected. This recovery mechanism is a coherent process, the ion undergoing a transient precession between its lower and upper electronic states, known as a Rabi oscillation. The frequency of this precession is proportional to the laser field amplitude.
The particle under study is detected by some kind of electromagnetic interaction, either by photon scattering from a laser beam, or possibly by mere induction effect in the trap walls, if it is a charged particle. The detected signals exhibit fluctuations which reveal the quantum jumps of the system between its quantum states. These experiments have been developed mainly for very high resolution purposes, in order to measure fundamental quantities (such as the electron g-2 factor)12 or in view of developing new frequency standards for metrology (ion trap experiments of various kinds)13.
Let us consider the statistics of the detection times of the photons scattered by a single ion driven at resonance by a strong laser beam. If the photons were emitted in an uncorrelated way, the probability of detecting one of them would be constant in time, independent of the time origin (Poisson process). It turns out however that the probability of collecting a photon immediately after one has been detected is smaller than it is for longer time delays. This is expressed by saying that the photons are "antibunched" (the single atom photon emission process is also said to be subPoissonian).