Alkali-activated cements and concretes by Krivenko, P. V.; Roy, D. M.; Shi, Caijun

By Krivenko, P. V.; Roy, D. M.; Shi, Caijun

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The decrease in strength is dependent upon the alkaline activator used. For example, with a 15% replacement of SiO2 with TiO2 in the synthetic slag, the strength of the cement is only 75% of the reference (Ti-free synthetic slag), when soda is used as an alkaline activator, 81% when sodium hydroxide is used, and 86% when sodium metasilicate is used. However, the effect of TiO2 on the strength of alkaliactivated-slag cements is much less than that on portland slag cement or lime-slag-gypsum cements.

Most standards in the world do not specify the glass content except the British Standard that requires a minimum glass content of 90% (Mehta 1986). 4 Grinding Prolonged grinding increases not only the surface area of a material, but also the number of imperfections or active centres which exist at the edges, corners, projections and places where the interatomic distances are abnormal or are embedded with foreign atoms. These centres are in a higher energy state than in the normal structure. The more such centres are, the higher the reactivity (Gregg 1961, Dave 1981).

4 lists different proposed chemical hydraulic indexes or hydraulic moduli based on chemical composition of granulated blast furnace slag for use as a partial replacement of portland cement. These hydraulic indexes can be classified into three types. Type I considers only the main component SiO2 in the slag. K3 is used as a quality criterion for blast furnace slag in many countries. 4 Hydraulic indexes of slag based on chemical composition (Smolczyk 1978, 1980, Shi 1987) Type Hydraulic index I K1 = 100 − SiO2 K2 = CaO + MgO + Al2 O3 SiO2 CaO + 1 4MgO + 0 6Al2 O3 K5 = SiO2 6CaO + 3Al2 O3 K7 = 7SiO2 + 4MgO K3 = CaO + 0 5MgO + Al2 O3 − 2 0SiO2 K3 = CaO + 0 5MgO + CaS SiO2 + MnO CaO + MgO + Al2 O3 + BaO K10 = SiO2 + MnO II K8 = III K12 = CaO + MgO + 0 3Al2 O3 SiO2 + 0 7Al2 O3 100 − SiO2 SiO2 CaO + MgO + Al2 O3 − 10 K4 = SiO2 CaO + 0 5MgO + Al2 O3 SiO2 + FeO + MnO 2 CaO + MgO + Al2 O3 K11 = SiO2 + MnO + TiO2 K9 = K13 = CaO + MgO SiO2 + 0 5Al2 O3 Cementing components 39 European and Canadian standards, K3 > 1 4 in Japanese standard.

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