Analytical methods for coal and coal products, Volume 1 by Clarence Karr

By Clarence Karr

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Ting, F. T. C. (1972). In "D ep o sitio n a l E nvironm ents of the L ig n ite-Bearin g Strata in Western North D ak o ta " (F. T. C. ), pp. 63 -6 8 . North Dakota Geol. Surv. M S 50. T ing, F. T. C. (1977). Palynology 1, 2 7 - 3 2 . Ting, F. T. , and Lo, H. B. (1975). Fuel 54, 2 01-204. Ting, F. T. , and Spackm an, W. (1975). C. R. Int. Congr. Carboniferous Stratigr. , 7th, Krefeld, 1971 4, 305-31 1. , and de Ruiter, E. (1966). Adv. Chem. 55, 3 32 -343. ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR COAL AND COAL PRODUCTS, VOL.

Because the absorption index of an unknown coal maceral is difficult to obtain, reflectanceof coal macerals is directly correlated with the reflectance of a glass orsynthetic standard with absorption index equal to zero. Thus, 1? _ - nof Rd ~ (nd + n0)2 n) (3) where Rd is the reflectance of glass standard, nd the refractive index of glass standard, and n0 the refractive index of immersion oil. The microscope-photometer system described in Sections V,A and VI,A is calibrated against a standard before reflectance measurement is made.

26% 2. 39 The Reflectance of Coal %94 92 90 ^ C 88 - £ 84 82 80 70 ___ LI_I__ I___ I____ I______ I_________I____________ L 0 0 1 2 3 0 Fig. ) 4 5 1 6 7 2 Reflectance in Oil, % 8 Component 3 Stepw ise variation in reflectance of vitrin ites w ith carbon content. (From Seyler, reflectance. These investigators used the subjective Berek method, al­ though they found it gave comparable results to an objective photo­ graphic method. The bulk of the reflectance data which have been assembled points to the conclusion that there is no stepwise or discontinuous change of reflectance with rank.

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